生产环境 uWSGI+django+nginx+python+MySQL

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2019-08-05
django生产环境搭建(uWSGI+django+nginx+python+MySQL)


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1、系统环境,必要知识
#cat /etc/redhat-release 
CentOS Linux release 7.5.1804 (Core) 
#uname -r
3.10.0-862.3.2.el7.x86_64

暂时关闭防护墙,关闭selinux:

#systemctl stop firewalld.service
#setenforce 0
#getenforce 
Permissive

准备知识:

django:一个基于python的开源web框架。

uWSGI:一个基于自有的uwsgi协议,wsgi协议和http服务协议的web网关

nginx:高性能的代理web服务器

wsgi.py:django项目自带的wsgi接口文件(位于:项目/项目名/wsgi.py)

整个项目流程:

首先客户端通过浏览器访问服务器资源;nginx作为对外服务的端口(80),nginx接收到客户端http请求后会解包分析,如果是静态文件就去配置的静态文件中查找资源并返回给客户端,如果是动态资源,nginx就通过配置文件将请求传递给uwsgi处理,并转发给uwsgi,wsgi根据请求调用django工程的文件和函数,处理后django将返回值交给wsgi,wsgi将返回值进行打包,转发给uWSGI,uWSGI接收到数据后转发给nginx,最终返回给客户端。

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2、安装python3.6.5

(1)安装python依赖包

yum -y install zlib-devel bzip2-devel openssl-devel ncurses-devel sqlite-devel readline-devel tk-devel gdbm-devel db4-devel libpcap-devel xz-devel python-devel

(2)安装python

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#wget https://www.python.org/ftp/python/3.6.5/Python-3.6.5.tgz
#mkdir -p /usr/local/python356
#tar zxvf Python-3.6.5.tgz
#cd Python-3.6.5
#./configure --prefix=/usr/local/python356
#make
#make install
#ln -s /usr/local/python356/bin/python3 /usr/local/bin/python3
#ln -s /usr/local/python356/bin/pip3 /usr/local/bin/pip3
#pip3 install --upgrade pip  #更新pip
#pip3 install ipython  #安装ipython方便调试

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测试安装是否正常:

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#python3 -V
Python 3.6.5

#pip3 -V
pip 10.0.1 from /usr/local/python356/lib/python3.6/site-packages/pip (python 3.6)

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3、安装Django
#pip3 install django

#ln -s /usr/local/python356/bin/django-admin /usr/local/bin/django-admin

创建项目:

#django-admin startproject mysite

创建app:

#cd mysite/
#django-admin startapp app01

在项目路径下创建模板文件目录(templates)和静态文件目录(static),后面会用到

# cd mysite/
# mkdir templates static

配置setting.py文件,配置允许访问主机名、将APP加入到项目、添加模板搜索路径

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# vim mysite/settings.py

ALLOWED_HOSTS = ["*"]  #允许本机所有地址访问

INSTALLED_APPS = [
    'django.contrib.admin',
    'django.contrib.auth',
    'django.contrib.contenttypes',
    'django.contrib.sessions',
    'django.contrib.messages',
    'django.contrib.staticfiles',
    'app01',      #加入app名
]

TEMPLATES = [
    {
        'BACKEND': 'django.template.backends.django.DjangoTemplates',
        'DIRS': [os.path.join(BASE_DIR,'templates')],  #加入模板搜索路径
......
]

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在views.py文件中创建视图函数

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# vim app01/views.py
from django.shortcuts import render

def index(request):
    return render(request,"app01/index.html")

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在templates目录中新建测试模板文件

# mkdir -p templates/app01
# vim templates/app01/index.html

test django server

在urls.py文件中建立路由

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# vim mysite/urls.py
from django.contrib import admin
from django.urls import path,re_path  #添加
from app01 import views  #添加

urlpatterns = [
    path('admin/', admin.site.urls),
    re_path('^$',views.index,name='index'),  #添加的路由
]

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检查配置是否有错误:

# python3 manage.py check
System check identified no issues (0 silenced).

运行测试服务器,测试服务是否正常

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# python3 manage.py runserver 0:8000
#在浏览器中测试是否正常显示网页内容
#注意防火墙和selinux是否关闭或允许相关端口访问
#curl 127.0.0.1:8000
test django server

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4、安装uWSGI

使用python的pip工具包安装:

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#pip3 install uwsgi

#ln -s /usr/local/python356/bin/uwsgi /usr/local/bin/uwsgi  #建立软链接
#uwsgi --version  #检查安装成功
2.0.17

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先在项目目录下建立一个测试文件:

# vim foobar.py
def application(env,start_response):
    start_response('200 ok',[('Content-Type','text/html')])
    return [b"Hello World"]

然后采用测试脚本方式启动服务:

# uwsgi --http :9000 --wsgi-file foobar.py 
#通过浏览器访问http://ip:9000能看到hello world说明成功
#然后停止服务

接下来配置uwsgi部署django服务:

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#运行测试服务,--http指定服务端口,--chdir指定django项目目录,--wsgi-file指定项目中的wsgi.py文件
# uwsgi --http :9000 --chdir /opt/mysite/ --wsgi-file mysite/wsgi.py --master --ocesses 4 --threads 2 --stats 127.0.0.1:9191

#通过浏览器http://ip:9000
#如能访问到diango模板中的html文件中的内容就算成功
#我的上面django模板中配置的内容是
test django server

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建立uWSGI的配置文件,在django项目中建立uwsgi.ini文件,并配置好django项目,此处使用socket链接,后面通过nginx反向代理

#注意此处的配置指定用户nginx必须存在

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[uwsgi]
socket = 127.0.0.1:9090
chdir = /djproject/mysite
module = mysite.wsgi    #这里填的是相对路径
master = true
processes = 2
threads = 2
max-requests = 2000
vacuum = true
daemonize = /djproject/mysite/uwsgi.log
stats = 127.0.0.1:9001
post-buffering = 65535
buffer-size = 65535
harakiri-verbose = true
harakiri = 300
uid = nginx
pidfile = /djproject/mysite/uwsgi.pid

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参数说明:

socket:使用套接字链接

http:通过http加端口的方式

wsgi-file:指定加载的wsgi文件

chdir:指定工程的绝对路径,如Django的项目路径

module:指定web应用的入口模块,如Django项目下的wsgi.py接口文件

master:启动主进程

processes:启动进程数

threads:启动线程数

max-requests:最大请求数

daemonize:指定uWSGI日志文件路径

stats:指定状态查询端口,如:127.0.0.1:9001

wsgi-file:指定启动的文件

post-buffering:设置缓冲区

buffer-size:设置缓冲区文件大小

harakiri-verbose:设置超时true为开启

harakiri:设置超时时间

uid、gid:设置用户和组

pidfile:指定启动时的pid文件路径

vacuum = true #当服务器退出的时候自动删除unix socket文件和pid文件

uwsgi信号控制:

HUP     :优雅的重新加载所有进程和配置,同(--reload)一样

TERM  :强制重新加载主进程和配置

 INT  :立即杀死整个uWSGI;同于:--stop

QUIT  :立即杀死真个uWSGI

重新启动实例:

#kill -HUP `cat /tmp/project-mast.pid`

#uwsgi --reload /tmp/project-master.pid

还可以在python程序中使用uwsgi.reload()重新加载

停止服务器:

#uwsgi --stop /tmp/project-master.pid

#kill -INT `cat /tmp/project-master.pid`

编写启动脚本:

#vim /etc/init.d/uwsgi 

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#!/bin/bash
#this is uwsgi server script

. /etc/init.d/functions

uwsgi=/usr/local/bin/uwsgi
uwsgi_pid=/djangoproject/mysite/uwsig.pid
uwsgi_conf=/djangoproject/mysite/uwsigconf.ini
uwsgi_pn=`ps -ef|grep -v "grep"|grep -c "uwsgi"`
ERVAL=0
start(){
    $uwsgi --ini $uwsgi_conf >& /dev/unll
    ERVAL=$?
    if [ $ERVAL -eq 0 ];then
        action "uwsgid starting ..." /bin/true
    else
        action "uwsgid start is error" /bin/false
    fi
}

stop(){
    $uwsgi --stop $uwsgi_pid >& /dev/null
    ERVAL=$?
    if [ $ERVAL -eq 0 ];then
        action "uwsgid stoping ..." /bin/true
    else
        action "uwsgid stop is error" /bin/false
    fi
}


case "$1" in
    start)
        if [ $uwsgi_pn -ge 5 ];then
            action "uwsgi is running!" /bin/false
        else
            start
            ERVAL=0
        fi
        ;;
    stop)
        if [ $uwsgi_pn -ge 5 ];then
            stop
            ERVAL=0
        else
            action "uwsgi no running!" /bin/false
        fi
        ;;
    reload)
        if [ $uwsgi_pn -ge 5 ];then
            $uwsgi --reload $uwsgi_pid >&/dev/null
            ERVAL=$?
            [ $ERVAL -eq 0 ] && action "uwsgi reloading ..." /bin/true
        else
            action "uwsgi reload error" /bin/false
        fi
        ;;
    restart)
        stop
        sleep 2
        start
        ;;
    *)
        echo $"Usage: $0 {start|stop|restart|reload|status}"
        ERVAL=2
esac
exit $ERVAL

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 centOS7 system系统服务脚本:

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#cat /usr/lib/systemd/system/uwsgi.service
[Unit]
Description=uwsgi service
After=network.target

[Service]
Type=forking
PIDFile=/run/uwsgi.pid
ExecStartPre=/usr/bin/rm -f /run/uwsgi.pid
ExecStart=/usr/local/python356/bin/uwsgi --ini /djproject/mysite/uwsgi.ini
ExecReload=/bin/kill -s HUP $MAINPID
KillSignal=SIGQUIT
TimeoutStopSec=5
KillMode=process
PrivateTmp=true

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

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centOS7建立system启动脚本后需要加载下:

systemctl daemon-reload

测试服务:

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#uwsgi --ini /djproject/mysite/uwsgi.ini    #启动服务

#ps -ef|grep "uwsgi"   #查看进程
root     103596      1  2 16:02 ?        00:00:00 /usr/local/python356/bin/uwsgi --ini /djproject/mysite/uwsgi.ini
root     103598 103596  0 16:02 ?        00:00:00 /usr/local/python356/bin/uwsgi --ini /djproject/mysite/uwsgi.ini
root     103599 103596  0 16:02 ?        00:00:00 /usr/local/python356/bin/uwsgi --ini /djproject/mysite/uwsgi.ini

#netstat -lntp|grep "uwsgi"
tcp        0      0 127.0.0.1:9090          0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      103596/uwsgi        
tcp        0      0 127.0.0.1:9001          0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      103596/uwsgi 

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看上面进程是少了一个主进程,通过systemctl 查看就清楚了:

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#systemctl status -l uwsgi.service 
● uwsgi.service - uwsgi service
   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/uwsgi.service; disabled; vendor preset: disabled)
   Active: active (running) since 五 2018-05-25 16:02:06 CST; 4min 14s ago
  Process: 103593 ExecStart=/usr/local/python356/bin/uwsgi --ini /djproject/mysite/uwsgi.ini (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
  Process: 103591 ExecStartPre=/usr/bin/rm -f /run/uwsgi.pid (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
 Main PID: 103596 (uwsgi)
   CGroup: /system.slice/uwsgi.service
           ├─103596 /usr/local/python356/bin/uwsgi --ini /djproject/mysite/uwsgi.ini
           ├─103598 /usr/local/python356/bin/uwsgi --ini /djproject/mysite/uwsgi.ini
           └─103599 /usr/local/python356/bin/uwsgi --ini /djproject/mysite/uwsgi.ini

5月 25 16:02:06 ZPY systemd[1]: Starting uwsgi service...
5月 25 16:02:06 ZPY uwsgi[103593]: [uWSGI] getting INI configuration from /djproject/mysite/uwsgi.ini
5月 25 16:02:06 ZPY systemd[1]: PID file /run/uwsgi.pid not readable (yet?) after start.
5月 25 16:02:06 ZPY systemd[1]: Started uwsgi service.

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#通过查看uwsgi的日志,如没报错,就接着下一步,部署nginx

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5、安装nginx

这里采用yum安装nginx:

yum -y install nginx

配置nginx反向代理uwsgi服务:

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user nginx;
worker_processes auto;
error_log /var/log/nginx/error.log;
pid /run/nginx.pid;

# Load dynamic modules. See /usr/share/nginx/README.dynamic.
include /usr/share/nginx/modules/*.conf;

events {
    worker_connections 1024;
}

http {
    log_format  main  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
                      '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
                      '"$http_user_agent" "$http_x_forwarded_for"';

    access_log  /var/log/nginx/access.log  main;

    sendfile            on;
    tcp_nopush          on;
    tcp_nodelay         on;
    keepalive_timeout   65;
    types_hash_max_size 2048;

    include             /etc/nginx/mime.types;
    default_type        application/octet-stream;

    # Load modular configuration files from the /etc/nginx/conf.d directory.
    # See http://nginx.org/en/docs/ngx_core_module.html#include
    # for more information.
    include /etc/nginx/conf.d/*.conf;

server {
    listen 80;
    server_name localhost;
    charset     utf-8;
    access_log      /var/log/nginx/nginx_access.log main;
    error_log       /var/log/nginx/nginx_error.log;
    client_max_body_size 75M;


    location /static {
        alias /djproject/mysite/static/ckeditor/;  #指定django的静态文件
        }

    location / {
        include     /etc/nginx/uwsgi_params;  #加载uwsgi模块
        uwsgi_pass  127.0.0.1:9090;   #所有请求转到9090端口交给uwsgi处理
        }
    }

}

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 此处记录下配置uwsgi和nginx套接字通信的坑:

第一个,nginx日志报错:

connect() to unix:///tmp/uwsgi.sock failed (2: No such file or directory) while connecting to upstream ......

可以明明uwsgi配置sock套接字通信在/tmp目录下明明有uwsgi.sock文件,而且/tmp目录是777权限,为什么nginx找不到套接字文件,经过google,百度查资料终于在stackoverflow上找到答案:是因为centOS7系统中/tmp临时目录,使用了命名空间的临时目录,对于每个服务只能访问自己创建的临时文件,所以我们不应该将sock文件放入/tmp目录,而因该放入/run目录下

第二个,uwsgi日志报错:

bind(): Permission denied [core/socket.c line 230]

经过第一个错误折腾,终于可以了,但放入/run目录后,uwsgi启动不了了,权限不够,这个问题解决简单,只需给/run目录,有uwsgi服务用户也就是uid指定的用户有写入权限即可,或者直接给/run目录777的权限但这样不安全。

#chmod o+w /run    #我的解决方法

下面是uwsgi和nginx的配置:

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#vim /uwsgi.ini

[uwsgi]
socket = /run/uwsgi.sock    #使用sock文件
chdir = /mysite/myblog
module = myblog.wsgi
master = true
processes = 2
threads = 2
max-requests = 2000
vacuum = true
home = /mysite
daemonize = /var/log/uwsgi/uwsgi.log
stats = 127.0.0.1:9001
post-buffering = 65535
buffer-size = 65535
harakiri-verbose = true
harakiri = 300
pidfile = /run/uwsgi.pid
vacuum = true

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#vim /etc/ningx/nginx.conf
...
server {
       ......
        location /static {
        alias /opt/mysite/static;
        }
    location / {
        include /etc/nginx/uwsgi_params;
            uwsgi_pass unix:///run/uwsgi.sock;   #指定sock文件
    }
}
...

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6、MySQL安装配置

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#下载二进制包安装
wget https://downloads.mysql.com/archives/get/file/mysql-5.5.32-linux2.6-x86_64.tar.gz
tar zxvf mysql-5.5.32-linux2.6-x86_64.tar.gz
mv mysql-5.5.32-linux2.6-x86_64 /usr/local/mysql-5.5.32
ln -s /usr/local/mysql-5.5.32 /usr/local/mysql
useradd -s /sbin/nologin -M mysql
mkdir /mysql/data -p
chown -R mysql.mysql /mysql/data
cd /usr/local/mysql
#添加配置文件和启动脚本
cp support-files/my-small.cnf /etc/my.cnf
cp support-files/mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysqld
#初始化数据库
./scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql --basedir=/usr/local/mysql --datadir=/mysql/data/
echo $?

#修改启动脚本路径
sed -i 's#^basedir=#basedir=/usr/local/mysql#g' /etc/init.d/mysqld
sed -i 's#^datadir=#datadir=/mysql/data#g' /etc/init.d/mysqld
chmod +x /etc/init.d/mysqld
#启动和关闭MySQL
/etc/init.d/mysqld start
/etc/init.d/mysqld stop
#方法2:
/usr/local/mysql/bin/msyql_safe &    #后台启动
mysqladmin shutdown  #优雅关闭MySQL服务
#查看运行状态
#netstat -lntup|grep 3306
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:3306            0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      70099/mysqld        

#添加系统自启动
chkconfig --add mysqld
chkconfig --level 345 mysqld on
#添加环境变量
echo "PATH=/usr/local/mysql/bin:$PATH" >> /etc/profile
source /etc/profile

#修改初始化密码
mysqladmin -uroot password '123456'

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#建立一个数据库,后面要用到
MySQL [(none)]> create database django;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)

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#centOS7下通过epel源yum安装MySQL

# yum install epel-release
# yum -y install mariadb mariadb-devel mariadb-server
# systemctl enable mariadb
# systemctl start mariadb# mysql -e "select version();"
+----------------+
| version()      |
+----------------+
| 5.5.60-MariaDB |
+----------------+

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#建立个数据库后面要用到
MariaDB [(none)]> create database django charset 'utf8';
MariaDB [(none)]> grant all on django.* to 'admin'@'127.0.0.1' identified by '123.com';
MariaDB [(none)]> flush privileges;

(1)配置Django链接MySQL:

在setting中,Django默认使用的是sqlite数据库:

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DATABASES = {
    'default': {
        'ENGINE': 'django.db.backends.sqlite3',
        'NAME': os.path.join(BASE_DIR, 'db.sqlite3'),
    }
}

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修改成MySQL数据库配置:

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DATABASES = {
        'default':{
        'ENGINE': 'django.db.backends.mysql',
        'NAME': 'django',
        'USER': 'root',
        'PASSWORD': '123.com',
        'HOST': '127.0.0.1',
        'PORT': '3306',
        }
}

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ENGINE : 指定数据库驱动,不同的数据库这个字段不同,下面是常见的集中数据库的ENGINE的写法:

django.db.backends.postgresql  # PostgreSQL  
django.db.backends.mysql       # mysql  
django.db.backends.sqlite3     # sqlite  
django.db.backends.oracle      # oracle 

NAME: 指定的数据库名,如果是sqlite的话,就需要填数据库文件的绝对位置

USER: 数据库登录的用户名,mysql一般都是root

PASSWORD:登录数据库的密码,必须是USER用户所对应的密码

HOST: 由于一般的数据库都是C/S结构的,所以得指定数据库服务器的位置,我们一般数据库服务器和客户端都是在一台主机上面,所以一般默认都填127.0.0.1

PORT:数据库服务器端口,mysql默认为3306

HOST和PORT都可以不填,使用默认的配置,但是如果你有更改默认配置的话,就需要填入更改后的

配置完这,下面就需要装python连接mysql数据库的驱动程序,首先,需要安装mysql的开发包

#yum install mysql-devel   #安装MySQL插件
#pip3 install mysqlclient    #安装MySQL驱动
#测试django配置
# python3 manage.py check

环境搭建到此就完成了,下面开始开发项目

回到顶部

7、编写一个简单的博客系统

(1)数据建模,规划博客内容字段

#首先装两个包django-ckeditor、pillow分别用来添加富文本和缩略图用

# pip3 install django-ckeditor pillow

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#vim app01/models.py

from django.db import models
from django.utils import timezone  #导入时间模板
from django.contrib.auth.models import User  #导入用户
from ckeditor_uploader.fields import RichTextUploadingField  #导入富文本模板

class blog_articles(models.Model):
    title = models.CharField(max_length=300,verbose_name="文章标题")
    author = models.ForeignKey(User,on_delete=models.CASCADE,related_name="blog_posts",verbose_name="文章作者")
    body = RichTextUploadingField(verbose_name="文章内容")
    description = RichTextUploadingField(verbose_name="文章描述")
    publish = models.DateTimeField(default=timezone.now,verbose_name="发表时间")
    picture = models.ImageField(upload_to="images")  #图片
    class Meta:
        ordering = ("-publish",)   #按时间倒序排列

    def __str__(self):
        return self.title   #显示文章标题

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(2)配置setting.py

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#vim mysite/settings.py

INSTALLED_APPS = [
    'django.contrib.admin',
    'django.contrib.auth',
    'django.contrib.contenttypes',
    'django.contrib.sessions',
    'django.contrib.messages',
    'django.contrib.staticfiles',
    'app01',
    'ckeditor',   #加入模块到项目
    'ckeditor_uploader',  #加入模板
]

LANGUAGE_CODE = 'zh-hans'   #配置中文

TIME_ZONE = 'Asia/Shanghai'  #配置时区

USE_I18N = True

USE_L10N = True

USE_TZ = False #关闭UTC时间


STATIC_URL = '/static/'
STATICFILES_DIRS = [os.path.join(BASE_DIR,"static"),]  #配置静态文件路径

MEDIA_URL = '/media/'  #媒体文件路由
MEDIA_ROOT = os.path.join(BASE_DIR,"static")  #媒体文件路径

STATIC_ROOT = os.path.join(BASE_DIR,"static/ckeditor") #配置收集静态文件路径

CKEDITOR_UPLOAD_PATH = 'uploads/'  #指定媒体上传目录的相对路径
CKEDITOR_IMAGE_GACKEND = 'pillow'  #使用pillow模板启用缩略图功能

#具体的ckedito配置文档:https://pypi.org/project/django-ckeditor/

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(3)配置admin.py后台

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# vim app01/admin.py

from django.contrib import admin
from .models import blog_articles   #导入数据

admin.site.register(blog_articles)  #加载到后台

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(4)配置url.py路由

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# vim mysite/urls.py
from django.contrib import admin
from django.urls import path,re_path,include
from app01 import views

urlpatterns = [
    path('admin/', admin.site.urls),
    re_path('^$',views.index,name='index'),
    path(r'ckeditor/',include('ckeditor_uploader.urls'))  #添加ckeditor路由
]

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(5)收集静态文件,生成数据并迁移

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# python3 manage.py check
# python3 manage.py collectstatic # python3 manage.py makemigrations # python3 manage.py migrate #执行此处会有一个警告信息,需要配置mysql严格模式,在setting.py文件中的DATABASES中的数据引擎中添加以下配置: 'OPTIONS': { 'init_command': "SET sql_mode='STRICT_TRANS_TABLES'", },

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(5)创建后台账户并验证后台添加文章

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# python3 manage.py creatsuperuser
Unknown command: 'creatsuperuser'. Did you mean createsuperuser?
Type 'manage.py help' for usage.
[root@PJYC7 mysite]# python3 manage.py createsuperuser
用户名 (leave blank to use 'root'): admin
电子邮件地址: admin@admin.com
Password: 
Password (again): 
密码长度太短。密码必须包含至少 8 个字符。
Bypass password validation and create user anyway? [y/N]: y
Superuser created successfully.

#重启uwsgi和nginx服务
# systemctl restart uwsgi
# systemctl restart nginx

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(6)模板展示文章

修改views.py:

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#vim app01/views.py 
from django.shortcuts import render,get_object_or_404
from .models import blog_articles

def index(request):    #主页
    blogs = blog_articles.objects.all()
    return render(request,"app01/index.html",{"blogs":blogs})

def center(request,article_id):   #详情页
    article = get_object_or_404(blog_articles,id=article_id)
    pub = article.publish
    return render(request,"app01/content.html",{"article":article,"publish":pub})

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建立模板文件:index.html,content.html

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# vim templates/app01/index.html





{% block title %}个人博客{% endblock %}







 
    {% for i in blogs %}
  • {{ i.publish.month }}-{{ i.publish.day }}{{ i.publish.year }}
    {{ i.title }}

    {{ i.description|safe }}

    阅读全文>>
  • {% endfor %}
# vim templates/app01/content.html {{ article.title }}

{{ article.body|safe }}

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修改路由:urls.py

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from django.contrib import admin
from django.urls import path,re_path,include
from app01 import views

urlpatterns = [
    path('admin/', admin.site.urls),
    re_path('^$',views.index,name='index'),
    path(r'ckeditor/',include('ckeditor_uploader.urls')),
    re_path(r'(?P\d)/$',views.center),  #详情页获取ID显示页面
]

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#重启uwsgi和nginx服务....

#查看显示页:点击详情页验证!!!

 添加后台过滤器:

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#vim app01/admin.py

from django.contrib import admin
from .models import blog_articles

class BlogArticlesAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    list_display = ("title","author","publish")
    list_filter = ("publish","author")
    search_fields = ('title','body')
    raw_id_fields = ("author",)
    date_hierarchy = "publish"

admin.site.register(blog_articles,BlogArticlesAdmin)

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(7)表单示例

通过template模版与MySQL实现简单表单交互

在app目录下的models文件中创建model类用于生成数据表:

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#cat app01/models.py 
from django.db import models

# Create your models here.

class userinfo(models.Model):
    name = models.CharField(max_length=32)
    password = models.CharField(max_length=32)
    age = models.IntegerField()
    salary = models.IntegerField()

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设置setting.py文件,将app加入到INSTALLED_APPS中:

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 INSTALLED_APPS = [
        'django.contrib.admin',
        'django.contrib.auth',
        'django.contrib.contenttypes',
        'django.contrib.sessions',
        'django.contrib.messages',
        'django.contrib.staticfiles',
        'app01'
        ]

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根据model类创建数据库表:

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#cmd进入django项目路径下
#python manage.py migrate #创建表结构,非model类的其他表,django所需要的
#python manage.py makemigrations app名 #做数据迁移的准备
如:python manage.py makemigrations app01 app01是项目中的app名字
#python manage.py migrate # 执行迁移,创建medel表结构

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在templages下建立模版文件:

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#cat templates/app01/home.html 



    
    test
    
    body{
        background-image: url('/static/78556.jpg');
    }
    


   #提交数据给自身
      

{% for item in data %} #循环获取传入字典数据 {% endfor %}
用户名 密码 年龄 工资
{{item.name}} {{item.password}} {{item.age}} {{item.salary}}
this is test file

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在app下新建视图函数,与数据库交互:

#cat app01/views.py

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from django.shortcuts import render
from django.http import HttpResponse
from app01 import models   #引入数据类模版
# Create your views here.

def home(request):   #创建home函数处理请求
  if request.method == "POST":   #判断是否为post提交
    #print(request.POST)
    models.userinfo.objects.create(     #提交表单的数据到数据库
    name = request.POST['username'],
    password = request.POST['password'],
    age = request.POST['age'],
    salary = request.POST['salary'],
)
  data = models.userinfo.objects.all()   #获取数据库数据
  return render(request,'app01/home.html',{'data':data}) #渲染模版文件并传递数据库表给模版

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#此处是以post方式提交,需要修改Django项目setting设置中的MIDDLEWARE,将csrf安全机制注销了:

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MIDDLEWARE = [
    'django.middleware.security.SecurityMiddleware',
    'django.contrib.sessions.middleware.SessionMiddleware',
    'django.middleware.common.CommonMiddleware',
    #'django.middleware.csrf.CsrfViewMiddleware',
    'django.contrib.auth.middleware.AuthenticationMiddleware',
    'django.contrib.messages.middleware.MessageMiddleware',
    'django.middleware.clickjacking.XFrameOptionsMiddleware',
]

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#建立路由:

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#cat mysite/urls.py
from django.contrib import admin
from django.urls import path
from app01 import views
urlpatterns = [
    path('admin/', admin.site.urls),
    path('home/',views.home),
]

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重新启动uWSGI:

#uwsgi --stop uwsgi.pid
#uwsgi --ini uwsgi.ini

#浏览器访问:http://192.168.146.139/home

#提交数据到数据库后并返回给浏览器客户端


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